1st Generation versus 2nd, 3rd, 4th

All of our pups are 1st generation (F1) crossbreeds.
We only breed 1st generation pups due to the puppies consistently displaying an even mix of the two breeds and due to the better health of a 1st generation pup.
Crossbreeding has a few advantages:
1. Crossbreeds tend to have more moderate temperaments compared to purebred dogs. This stems from the fact that many purebreds were originally bred to fulfill a specific purpose — i.e. hunting foxes, guarding properties, herding sheep, protecting cattle, etc. As a result, they have stronger tendencies towards certain actions — i.e. digging, barking, increased energy, hunting and aggression — which are not desirable behaviours in modern family pets. Crossbreeding dilutes these excessive traits and instead achieves a more moderate personality that is better equipped to fit into modern family life. 
2. Fewer congenital issues – a common problem amongst purebred dogs is genetic conditions being passed on from one generation to the next. Crossbreeding takes advantage of a phenomenon known as hybrid vigour. Hybrid vigour, or heterosis, is the increase in biological fitness in the 1st generation offspring of two genetically different parents. Whereas inbreeding leads to the offspring being less disease resistant, suffering from inherited health issues and usually not living as long as the parents.

What is the difference between a 1st Generation Cross versus 2nd, 3rd, 4th etc?
A 1st generation pup is the offspring of the cross between:
– 2 purebred dogs.
So a 1st generation Cavoodle is the cross between a pure Poodle and a pure King Charles Cavalier.
A 1st generation Groodle is the cross between a pure Poodle and a pure Golden Retriever.
A 1st generation Mini Retriever is the cross between a pure King Charles Cavalier and a pure Golden Retriever.
A 1st generation Mini Groodle is the cross between a pure Mini Retriever and a pure Poodle.

2nd, 3rd and 4th Generation pups are a cross where the same breed is part of the cross.
So for example a 2nd generation Cavoodle F1b is a cross between a Cavoodle (which is half Poodle) and a Poodle OR F2 is a cross between a Cavoodle and a Cavoodle .
2nd, 3rd and 4th Generation crosses often show double ups of certain genes.
So 2nd, 3rd and 4th generation Cavoodles puppies often have a stronger Cavalier or Poodle resemblance.
These 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations pups also have less hybrid vigour than 1st generation pups. Due to a larger concentration of certain genes from one of the breeds in 2nd, 3rd and 4th generation puppies, there is a higher chance of an inherited congenital health problem coming through.

Examples below in Cavoodle breeding showing F1 (1st generation), F1b (1st generation back cross), F2 (2nd generation) etc:

  • F1 – Cavalier and Poodle bred together to create a Cavoodle
  • F1b – Poodle or Cavalier bred with an F1 Cavoodle
  • F2 – Two F1 Cavoodles bred together
  • F2b – Either a Cavalier or Poodle bred with an F2 Cavoodle OR an F1b Cavoodle bred with an F1 Cavoodle
  • F3 – Two F2 Cavoodles bred together
  • F4 – Two F3 Cavoodles bred together

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